DIABETES MEDICATIONS AT A GLANCE

Drug Class Drug Names When to take How it works Possible Side Effects
Sulfonylureas Diabinese (Chloropropamide) **

Diabeta, Glynase, Micronase

(Glyburide) *

 

Glucotrol

(Glipizide) **

 

Glucotrol XL

(Glipizide extended release)

 

Amaryl

(Glimepiride) **

Take with food

 

Take before a meal

 

 

 

Take 30 minutes before a meal

 

May be taken with a meal; do not crush or chew

 

Take before or with meals

Stimulates the pancreas to release more insulin.

 

Hypoglycemia(Low blood sugar),

weight gain, nausea, diarrhea, constipation, sun sensitivity, skin rash.

Biguanides Glucophage,Glucophage XR

Fortamet

Riomet

Glumetza

(Metformin) *

Take with food to minimize side effects Decreases production of glucose by the liver; improves insulin sensitivity in liver, muscle, and fat cells. Nausea, diarrhea, gas, metallic taste.Comments:

Inform radiologist you are taking this medication for any procedure in which they are going to inject a contrast dye.

 

 

Drug Class Drug Names  When To Take It How it works Possible Side Effects
Thiazolidinediones Actos(Pioglitazone) **

 

Take daily as directed Improves insulin sensitivity, decreases production of glucose by the liver; takes up to 4-6 weeks for full effect. Headache, weight gain, edema (swelling).

 

D-Phenylalanine derivatives Starlix(Nateglinide) ** Take 1-30 minutes before a meal Stimulates the pancreas to release more insulin with a meal. Hypoglycemia, weight gain, headache.
Meglitinides Prandin(Repaglinide) Take 15 minutes before a meal Stimulates the pancreas to release more insulin with a meal. Hypoglycemia, weight gain, headache.
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Glycet(Miglitol) Take with the first bite of each meal Slows down the digestion of certain carbohydrates in the intestines. Upset stomach, diarrhea, gas, bloating.
DPP4 Inhibitor Januvia(Sitagliptin phosphate)

Onglyza

(Saxagliptin)

Tradjenta

(linagliptin)

Nesina

(alogliptin)

 

Take once a day with orWithout food Helps improve levels of insulin made by your body after a meal.Decreases amount of sugar made by your body Stuffy nose,headache, &

sore throat.

Dopamine receptor agonist

Cyclocet (bromocriptine mesylate)

Take once daily within 2 hours of waking up. May reset or alter glucose metabolism in tissue outside the brain by increasing dopamine activity in the brain Nausea
Incretin Mimetics
  • ·Byetta

(Exenatide Injection)

♦Bydureon

(Exenatide Injection)

victosa

(Liraglutide)

  • ·Take injection twice a day

15-60 minutes before breakfast and dinner.

♦Take injection once

a week

♥Take injection one time a day

Slows gastric emptying.Increases basal cell function

Increases satiety

 

 

Nausea &Vomiting.
SGLT2 Inhibitor Invokana(canaglifozin) Take in the a.m. before your first meal Lowers renal threshold so there is less glucose reabsorb ion by the kidney and increase glucose excretion in the urine. .Urinary tract infection

Yeast infection of genitals

Hypotension

Increase urination

Amylin Symlin(Pramlintide injection) Take injection  15-60 minutes before a meal or snack of 30 grams or higher of carbohydrate or 300 calories Slows gastric emptying.Increases satiety Nausea &Vomiting

Reviewed/Revised 07/13

Courtesy of the Renown Diabetes Center